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Overall objectives

  • To determine the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of invasive disease due to Neisseria meningitidis, group A streptococcus, group B streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza requiring hospitalization in a defined population
  • To provide an infrastructure for further research, such as special studies aimed at identifying risk factors for disease, and post-licensure evaluation of vaccines and treatments

Pathogen-specific objectives

Group A streptococcus (GAS)

  • To determine the distribution of emm types and the association between specific emm types and disease severity
  • To track antimicrobial resistance among invasive group A streptococcal isolates
  • To identify potentially modifiable risk factors for community-acquired group A streptococcal infections
  • To assess the effect of early administration of IVIG on mortality associated with invasive group A streptococcal disease

Group B streptococcus (GBS)

  • To characterize epidemiology and trends in neonatal and adult invasive group B streptococcal disease
  • To evaluate effectiveness of screening and antibiotic prophylaxis on neonatal group B streptococcal disease


  • To determine the incidence, clinical features and outcomes of episodes of laboratory-confirmed influenza associated with hospitalization in a defined population and to assess variability in diagnosis and management
  • To assess the effect of treatment with antiviral medication on length of stay, and mortality
  • To assess efficacy of influenza vaccine in preventing hospitalization due to influenza in older adults

Neisseria meningitidis

  • To characterize epidemiology and trends in invasive menigococcal disease
  • To evaluate effectiveness of meningococcal conjugate vaccines and impact on disease burden
  • To compare components of care for patients with suspected meningitis to current care guidelines

Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • To track emerging antimicrobial resistance in pneumococcal isolates
  • To evaluate the impact of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for infants on burden of disease and  antimicrobial resistance
  • To evaluate prevention of pneumococcal disease among the elderly through pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine use
  • To detect changes in serotype and epidemiology of illness due to Streptococcus pneumoniae which may be associated with the introduction of the pediatric conjugate vaccines
  • To determine patient characteristics of adults with community acquired Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis, and attempt to identify risk factors for the disease as well as prognostic indicators for poor outcome
  • To determine the effect of antimicrobial exposure on risk of isolation of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from community-dwelling seniors
  • To compare microbiologic characteristics of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing meningitis over time
  • To determine the microbiologic and molecular characteristics and the association between specific serotypes and disease severity
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