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COVID-19 Education Study (CCS-2)

Status: Data collection complete, analysis ongoing Study Results French site

Are you an Ontario teacher or education worker affected by the COVID-19 pandemic?


Study design Number of participants Study period
Prospective cohort 3875 February 2021 – December 2023

What was the purpose of this study?

To determine how many people working in the elementary and secondary schools in Ontario developed COVID-19 infections and the risk factors for infection, to describe the changes to antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 over time, the incidence of re-infection, the uptake of vaccines against COVID-19, and the psychological impact of working during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Who was eligible to participate?

People who worked for or with a school or school board in Ontario who:

  • Were 18 to 74 years old and
  • Worked anywhere in the Ontario education system for ≥8 hours per week

Inclusive of English or French, Catholic or non-denominational, publicly-funded or independent schools and school boards.

Data collected

  • Respiratory illness episodes, with COVID-19 test results
  • Risk factors for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (personal, household, workplace, and community)
  • Blood samples to detect cases of asymptomatic or undiagnosed COVID-19 and changes in antibody levels (over time, after vaccinations and illnesses)
  • Levels of distress while working during the COVID-19 pandemic

Who funded this study?

Study investigators

Dr. Brenda Coleman, PhD (Sinai Health & University of Toronto)
Dr. Allison McGeer, MD (Sinai Health & University of Toronto)
Dr. Robert Maunder, MD (Sinai Health & University of Toronto)
Dr. Sharon Straus, MD (Unity Health & University of Toronto)
Dr. Susan Bondy, PhD (University of Toronto)
with the invaluable assistance of our staff: Kailey Fischer, MSc, Evelyn, Susan, Chloe, Kanchan, Iris, Veronica, and Nicole.


The study investigators and everyone who worked on the CCS-2 would like to sincerely thank all participants for the time and effort they put into helping us collect data about their experiences during the last 2½ years of the SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 pandemic. We cannot adequately express our gratitude.

We also thank the National Microbiology Laboratory for their collaboration and support of this study.

Thank you

(attribution Image by Freepik)

Contact us

If you have questions, please contact Toronto Invasive Bacterial Diseases Network.